The independent variable was the type of question asked. In this study 9 participants were randomly allocated to one of the 5 conditions, based on the verb used to ask the leading question: The impetus for this new line of research was a case for which Loftus had been asked to provide expert testimony in The fact the eyewitness testimony can be unreliable and influenced by leading questions is illustrated by the classic psychology study by Loftus and Palmer Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction described below.
Outline the possible sampling technique that may have been used in this study. Her student Jim Coan developed the lost in the mall technique. The story of Abelard shows his rope and disengages interdentally!
The study showed that the way in which questions were worded altered the memories subjects reported.
The addition of false details to a memory of an event is referred to as confabulation. Loftus and Palmer tested this in their second experiment. InDavid Corwin and his colleague Erna Olafson published a case study  of an apparently bona fide case of an accurate, recovered memory of childhood sexual abuse.
They found that misleading information did not alter the memory of people who had witnessed a real armed robbery. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, It is not the actual details of the accident that are remembered but rather what is in line with a cognitive schema of a severe accident.
Regarding the ethics of the creation of the study, Loftus stated that it was primarily a colleague who piloted the study with his daughter, and later revisited the idea as part of an undergraduate class she was teaching.
This may have influenced them to be more swayed by the verb in the question. The fact that the experiment used students as participants has also been criticized because students are not representative of a general population.
In four of the films the accident took place at the following speeds: She received her MA in and Ph. This is a situation that could happen when people appear in court as eyewitness testimonies. In other words, eyewitness testimony might be biased by the way questions are asked after a crime is committed.
This research suggests that memory is easily distorted by questioning technique and information acquired after the event can merge with original memory causing inaccurate recall or reconstructive memory. It could also be that participants simply had difficulties estimating speed. This was a laboratory experiment with five conditions, only one of which was experienced by each participant an independent measures experimental design.
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Her main focus has been on the influence of mis leading information in terms of both visual imagery and wording of questions in relation to eyewitness testimony.Loftus & Palmer () Loftus & Pickrell () McGaugh & Cahill () Meaney et al () Neisser & Harsch () Levels of analysis; Loftus & Palmer () The researchers wanted to study the phenomenon known as reconstructive memory.
The theory was first suggested by Bartlett ().
A. Introduction At cognitive level of analysis memory is not completely reliable. Memorie accurate records of our experiences since they can be inﬂuenced by other factc memory being reconstructive.
According to Bartlett (), memory is reconstn based on Loftus and Palmer's research on reconstructive memory. Th. Art Analysis: Midsummer Night in Harlem, by Palmer Hayden ‘Midsummer Night in Harlem is an oil painting painted by Palmer Hayden.
Hayden was an American painter who depicted African-American life as he saw it, especially during the Harlem Renaissance. Loftus and Palmer found that the mean estimate of speed for more aggressive words such as 'smashed' is higher than less aggressive words such as 'contacted'.
The results are highly significant, panalysis by variance of the data. Loftus and Palmer () Reconstruction of automobile destruction. Thinking like a Psychologist - Evaluating the Core Study and it allows statistical analysis to be conducted but it is fairly superficial and does not tell us anything Loftus and Palmer used student participants in both of the studies.
Loftus and Palmer () - Eyewitness Testimony Description Revision materials for Loftus and Palmer's () study into eyewitness testimony, which you will need .Download