Building on the credibility of her status as a lawyer, she transformed the legal OECD documents into accessible wording, often "ready for use" in the subsequent NGO campaigns. These efforts failed again, however, as a group of more than twenty poor countries united in demanding a fairer trade deal.
Tony Clarke managed to get a copy of the MAI draft. The agreement would establish the principle of "national treatment" in which government must treat foreign companies as favorably as domestic companies as the norm for international investment.
In Aprilthe negotiations were formally suspended for six months. This page follows the MAI and other related initiatives on international investment. Allow states and corporations recourse to international arbitration for instance, through the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes to settle any disputes arising under the agreement,  instead of national courts in the host state.
NGOs showed that they were well interconnected.
Indeed, in some cases, foreign corporations might have stronger protections than domestic investors. In Montreal, on May 25,the Montreal Conference on Globalized Economies was nonviolently blockaded for five hours by hundreds of activists in what was called Operation SalAMI,  based on the French acronym of the proposed agreement, AMI, referring not only the sausage, but also to a "dirty friend".
Although the agreement was to be negotiated between the member states, the intention was to have an open agreement to which non-OECD members could accede on a negotiated basis. A particular concern was that the MAI would result in a "race to the bottom" among countries willing to lower their labor and environmental standards to attract foreign investment.
In this connection, the agreement embodied acceptance of a compliance regime under which liberalization must proceed forward with no ability to be wound back — the so-called ratchet effect.
Yet when the MNCs and major governments tried to expand those advantages through the Multilateral Agreement on Investment MAIthey were stymied by a global alliance of activists. These mobilizations on an international scale actually led to the shelving of the agreement.
Minimise the diverse state regulations in governing the conditions under which investments by foreign corporations could take place.
In either case, the arbitration process is closed. The US, eager to avoid interference from poor countries, considered the OECD Council a "safe" body since only rich countries are members of the organization.
This would be enforced by so-called rollback and standstill provisions, to ensure that investors would have access to markets. MAI opponents made heavy use of electronic mail and the World Wide Web in raising the alert, sharing information and coordinating actions.
Secret negotiations took place from until when an OECD source leaked a copy of the draft agreement to a Canadian citizen group. The origin of organised opposition was traced by Katia Tieleman in her UN case study: They worked collaboratively, flexibly and imaginatively towards their goals while MNCs and governments were working secretively and within more traditional hierarchical models.
However, rich governments continue to push for similar investment provisions in regional trade agreements and the World Trade Organization WTO. Contrary to many critics, he argued that the MAI would help prevent a " race to the bottom " that would undermine high standards of Canadian regulation.
These provisions required nations to eliminate regulations that violated MAI provisions — either immediately or over a set period of time — and to refrain from passing any such laws in the future. After turning "the text into a readable document and adding an analysis and interpretation" [sourced to interview with Tony Clarke, Brussels, April 28], he posted it to an international email distribution list about globalization called le Forum international sur la globalization in February The award-winning documentary Pressure Point: Background[ edit ] International direct investment has been taking place in various forms and to different degrees for over a century.
Her role as provider of information combined with her role as provider of explanation gave her a power-position in the campaign. These NGOs argued that the MAI would threaten protection of human rightslabor and environmental standardsand least developed countries.
The first BIT, between West Germany and Pakistanwas signed in  and their numbers have grown steadily since then, although research suggests that BITs do little to increase foreign investment. By their arguments, the draft proposed a North American Free Trade Agreement -style investor-state dispute settlement tribunal in which corporations could sue governments if legislation e.
MAI opponents saw the agreement as a threat to nationalsovereignty and democracy and argued that it would lead to a "race to the bottom" in environmental and labor standards. Lori Wallacha graduate of Harvard Law School, became one of the strongest leading organizers of the international campaign against the MAI.
Inside the Montreal Blockade recorded the drama of this action where people were arrested. Examples of forbidden conditions include requiring investors to form a partnership with a local company and requiring a minimum number of local employees—the types of policies governments use to help ensure that local people benefit from foreign investment.2 (Note by the Secretariat) This document contains the commentary to text of the agreement considered in the course of the MAI negotiations so far.
The Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) Multinational corporations (MNCs) enjoy enormous structural and resource advantages over employees and citizens.
Indeed, in some cases, foreign corporations might have stronger protections than domestic investors. "The MAI bars many types of performance requirements, or conditions, even if.
Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview James K. Jackson Specialist in International Trade and Finance April 16, Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview Congressional Research Service 3 known as the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI).
The MAI was expected to be a broad, legally. Recognising that agreement upon the treatment to be accorded to investors and their investments will contribute to the efficient utilisation of economic resources, the creation of employment opportunities.
overview of the multilateral agreement on investment (Note by the Secretariat) This document was issued during the MAI negotiations which took place between and An Overview of the MAI or Multinational Agreement of Investors PAGES 2.
WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: multinational agreement of investors, mai, economic cooperation and development. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University.Download