In government reside the intermediate forces whose relations make up that of the whole to the whole, or of the Sovereign to the State. It follows from this double relation that the continuous proportion between the Sovereign, the prince and the people, is by no means an arbitrary idea, but a necessary consequence of the nature of the body politic.
Thus, the general will is always the weakest, the corporate will second, and the individual will strongest of all: The members of this body are called magistrates or kings, that is to say governors, and the whole body bears the name prince.
Furthermore, none of these three terms can be altered without the equality being instantly destroyed. Furthermore, the bigger the State grows, the more its real force increases, though not in direct proportion to its growth; but, the State remaining the same, the number of magistrates may increase to any extent, without the government gaining any greater real force; for its force is that of the State, the dimension of which remains equal.
This accordingly gives rise to a new proportion, within which there is yet another, according to the arrangement of the magistracies, till an indivisible middle term is reached, i. If, ridiculing this system, any one were to say that, in order to find the mean proportional and give form to the body of the government, it is only necessary, according to me, to find the square root of the number of the people, I should answer that I am here taking this number only as an instance; that the relations of which I am speaking are not measured by the number of men alone, but generally by the amount of action, which is a combination of a multitude of causes; and that, further, if, to save words, I borrow for a moment the terms of geometry, I am none the less well aware that moral quantities do not allow of geometrical accuracy.
Moreover, it is a certainty that promptitude in execution diminishes as more people are put in charge of it: In attempting to give some idea of the various relations that may hold between these two extreme terms, I shall take as an example the number of a people, which is the most easily expressible.
But, as the use to which the force is put depends on the degree reached by the will, and as the absolute force of the government is invariable, it follows that the most active government is that of one man. Thus the relative force or activity of the government decreases, while its absolute or real force cannot increase.
It is a moral person endowed with certain faculties, active like the Sovereign and passive like the State, and capable of being resolved into other similar relations. The writings of Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, and Aquinas on the tabula rasa theory stood unprogressed and untested for several centuries.
Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one moral, i.
But, as countless events may change the relations of a people, not only may different governments be good for different peoples, but also for the same people at different times.
But the total force of the government, being always that of the State, is invariable; so that, the more of this force it expends on its own members, the less it has left to employ on the whole people. If finally the prince should come to have a particular will more active than the will of the Sovereign, and should employ the public force in his hands in obedience to this particular will, there would be, so to speak, two Sovereigns, one rightful and the other actual, the social union would evaporate instantly, and the body politic would be dissolved.
According to the natural order, on the other hand, these different wills become more active in proportion as they are concentrated. Without their concurrence, nothing is, or should be, done. There is between these two bodies this essential difference, that the State exists by itself, and the government only through the Sovereign.
The government gets from the Sovereign the orders it gives the people, and, for the State to be properly balanced, there must, when everything is reckoned in, be equality between the product or power of the government taken in itself, and the product or power of the citizens, who are on the one hand sovereign and on the other subject.
The body politic has the same motive powers; here too force and will are distinguished, will under the name of legislative power and force under that of executive power. Thus, the government, having always the same absolute force, will be at the lowest point of its relative force or activity. If the people numbers a hundred thousand, the condition of the subject undergoes no change, and each equally is under the whole authority of the laws, while his vote, being reduced to a hundred-thousandth part, has ten times less influence in drawing them up.In Western philosophy, the concept of tabula rasa can be traced back to the writings of Aristotle who writes in his treatise "Περί Ψυχῆς" (De Anima or On the Soul) of the "unscribed tablet."In one of the more well-known passages of this treatise he writes that: Haven't we already disposed of the difficulty about interaction involving a common element, when we said that mind is in a.
BOOK III. BEFORE speaking of the different forms of government, let us try to fix the exact sense of the word, which has not yet been very clearly explained. 1. GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL. I WARN the reader that this chapter requires careful reading, and that I am unable to make myself clear to those who refuse to be attentive.
Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one.Download