One of the main challenges in introducing patient healthcare records is the development and use of systems that advance communication and information sharing. EPR will provide physicians with related information located at different locations over different times.
EPR system can also be used as a managerial tool as it provides total, cost-effective access to more complete, accurate patient care data.
The efficiency can be increased by reducing costs and improving staff productivity. Berg suggested an approach for development process, where change in technology requires a change in work practice as well as concurrency between analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation stages.
Hence, connected and unconnected electronic systems should be coordinated and interoperable i. These names are given from time to time in different nations and in different healthcare environments. The benefits of EPR system can be provided, if there is a clear vision of the work they are intended to support.
The clinical data captured electronically could be later used for evaluation of quality assurance, quality improvement, examinations of variations in care and studies of utilization and outcomes.
Sharing information is an essential aspect of communicating with colleagues and patients about delivery of care. On the other side, 70 percent of the people live in rural areas and live below the poverty line. However, standardization is the major step required for sharing and classifying healthcare information with respect to quality and proficiency way Karim, It plays an important role in improving quality of patient care, strengthens the clinical practice, and contributes to management of healthcare costs.
The Indian healthcare industry is growing at a phenomenal rate, with private hospitals, government funds and foreign aid in the public health program steering this growth.
Phased adoption is a strategy of implementing an innovation in an organization in a phased approach, so that different parts of the organization are implemented in different subsequent time slots.
According to Karimat present a working group is revising the standards of interoperable EHRs. It would also help providers more efficient both from the cost as well as from clinical care perspective Managerial tool: According to Bossenseveral interoperability methods have been introduced ODBC Open Database Connectivity gateways, message queues, interface engines, software adapters and web services.
They are not able to access quality healthcare, as most of the quality hospitals are located in the cities and towns Mukherjee et al, Thus, this scheme can proceed in several steps from automation of billing and scheduling. It includes past medical history, present complaints, results of examinations done, diagnosis and treatment and the condition of these medical records in public hospitals in quite disappointing.
They are parallel strategy, pilot strategy, phasing strategy, cold turkey strategy or big bang adoption, and direct implementation. The PHC provides basic health support, if the patient needs examination, they will be referred to a district hospital and if the case needs more attention or is complex then they will be referred to the Tertiary hospitals.
Karim discusses that, Interoperability system will reduce the time that consumers and providers consume during filling out clinical application forms, which influence both cost and efficiency.
Instead, web messaging was used as a solution for patient demand to have an electronic access to their provider, and the result was encouraging as it had improved electronic communication between healthcare provider and their patients moreover the clinicians responded in time.
This means that patients have more choice and less waiting time, the physicians save time and have pat history of patient instantly, thus ensuring safe, efficient, consistent, and continuous healthcare for patients.
The advantages of the interoperability system will cover both consumers and healthcare providers, which can be classified into improved feasibility, privacy, access, and quality of healthcare services.
According BergWinthereik cited in Karim pointed out that electronic patient records are increasingly used as a tool to standardize healthcare records, which is not feasible with paper-based records. The author reveals the interoperability of electronic healthcare information exchange between providers and independent laboratories, radiology centres and pharmacies.
The absence of instant access to patient healthcare information is the cause of one-fifth of medical errors. Moreover, with time, information in paper records gets diminished of ageing paper and ink, even fire accidents or natural disasters can ruin the archive of paper records. An electronic health record defined by Murphy as any information relating to the past, present or future physical health of an patient existing in an electronic system, which is used to capture, transmit, receive, store, retrieve, and manipulate data for the main purpose of providing healthcare and health-related services.
It should focus on the workflow to hardware and software selection and training the staff, and the best way to implement is with precise goals and project implementation team. Schneider et al says that utilizing EPR in a secondary healthcare will support shared work via expanding the field of shared data.clinical workstations.6 CPR systems are Analyzing Computer based Patient Records: A Review of Literature ABSTRACT A wide-ranging literature review of computer-based patient record (CPR) implementation over the past decade reveals that clinical, workflow, administrative, and revenue enhancement for electronic billing.5, The CPR.
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Adoption of e-Payment Systems: A Review of Literature. investigate the adoption of e-payment systems. Acceptance of Electronic Payment System in Indian Banking. WATER BILLING SYSTEM Review of Related Literature According to Book This chapter provides the related literature and studies significant to the proposed system.
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