In a nutshell, Alexander wished to chart the delicate middle-path of making the changes necessary to modernize Russia without losing the support of the conservative nobles who supported the Romanov autocracy.
Defeat in the Crimea and the succession of a new, younger tsar created a political climate more favourable to reform. Alexander II, detail of a portrait by an unknown artist, 19th century; in the collection of Mrs. To some extent, he was, of course, the representative of forces—intellectual, economic, and political—that were stronger than himself or, indeed, any single individual.
This triggered the War of the Sixth Coalition. The loss in Crimea showed Alexander the need to modernize in order to strengthen Russia and retain its status as a Great Power.
They promoted humanistic and liberal ideas, culture as well as intellect. In April Russia and Sweden signed an agreement for mutual defence. In the face of bitter opposition from landowning interests, Alexander II, overcoming his natural indolence, took an active personal part in the arduous legislative labours that on Febuary 19,culminated in the Emancipation Act.
Discontent, Opposition, and Death The disappointment in the aftermath of the emancipation exacerbated questions of his liberalism.
Liberation became an empty word for the serfs when their impoverish condition continued and even worsened. The mir tended to be backwards looking in terms of perpetuating traditional farming techniques: Peasants tended to be dissatisfied with what they saw as the shortcomings of the deal - i.
Should the nobles be compensated for the loss of their land? Following unsuccessful attempts to shoot him, to derail his train, and finally to blow up the Winter Palace in St. He grew increasingly suspicious of those around him, more withdrawn, more religious.
Only the Minister of the Interior could remove the land captains and at a local level each land captain was given draconian rights — sending offenders into exile, flogging and handing out the death penalty.
There was no delegation to meet the Emperor. In January Alexander had still upheld the ideal of a free confederation of the European states, symbolised by the Holy Alliance, against the policy of a dictatorship of the great powers, symbolised by the Quadruple Treaty; he had still protested against the claims of collective Europe to interfere in the internal concerns of the sovereign states.
To achieve this he had to remove those people who had imported into Russia alien ideas that were covertly undermining his position and the national identity of Russia itself. A month later Alexander secured his southern flank through the Treaty of Bucharestwhich formally ended the war against Turkey.
The meeting took place at Erfurt in October and resulted in a treaty that defined the common policy of the two Emperors. Ganja was ruthlessly sacked during the siege of Ganjawith some 3,   — 7,  inhabitants of Ganja executed, and thousands expelled to Iran.
Merriweather Post, Hillwood, Washington, D. It failed resulting to three decades of reactionary policies — only to conclude with the rise of the Tsar Liberator. After staying a month Napoleon moved his army out southwest toward Kalugawhere Kutuzov was encamped with the Russian army. A reluctant Napoleon ratified it two days later.
When Nicholas I tried to recruit troops for the Crimean war from the peasantry this peasant unrest increased considerably, and the levels of violence demanded that the army had to be used to restore order. But one issue, however, began to progress — the issue of abolition of serfdom.
Meanwhile, however, the personal relations of Alexander and Napoleon were of the most cordial character, and it was hoped that a fresh meeting might adjust all differences between them. Alexander later expelled foreign scholars.
There were in total incidents of peasants rioting following the Edict, with a notable example in Bezdna where a peasant urged his fellow serfs to seize land for themselves, and was then arrested and executed for his part in the disturbances that followed.
And for several times, Alexander survived.
Even though the French were victorious in the initial battles during the campaign in Germanythe Coalition armies eventually defeated them at the decisive Battle of Leipzig in the autumn of These were strengthened, and three others were founded at St. Russia refused, stormed Ganja, and declared war.
The local mir was made responsible for collecting and paying the redemption taxes, and thus exercised considerable control over each peasant. Please help us clarify the article. He introduced universal conscription, which mandated all men regardless of class to join the military.
While retaining for a time the old ministers, one of the first acts of his reign was to appoint the Private Committeecomprising young and enthusiastic friends of his own— Viktor KochubeyNikolay NovosiltsevPavel Stroganov and Adam Jerzy Czartoryski —to draw up a plan of domestic reform, which was supposed to result in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in accordance with the teachings of the Age of Enlightenment.
The campaign effectively ended on 14 Decemberwith the last French troops leaving Russian soil. Put simply, he wanted to have his autocratic cake and eat it!
Inthe minimal powers that the zemstva had were removed; local justices of the peace were also removed and replaced by a system of land captains who were directly appointed and answerable to the Minister of the Interior.These were labelled ‘Russification’ and they came into being immediately he was crowned tsar in The primary aspect of Russification was to rid Russia of western ideas that Alexander III believed had weakened the nation and reduced its national identity.
Alexander wanted to reclaim Russia’s ‘Russian-ness’. The future Tsar Alexander II was the eldest son of the grand duke Nikolay Pavlovich (who, inbecame the emperor Nicholas I) and his wife, Alexandra Fyodorovna (who, before her marriage to the Grand Duke and baptism into the Orthodox Church, had been the princess Charlotte of Prussia).
Alexander II came to the throne in March at the age of 36, having been well prepared and trained to take over from his father, Nicholas I.
Historian Lionel Kochan described him as "the best prepared heir the Russian throne ever had ". Alexander I: Tsar of War and Peace. New York: Harper and Row. Troubetzkoy, Alexis S. (). Imperial Legend: The Mysterious Disappearance of Tsar Alexander I.
Arcade Publishing. ISBN Walker, Franklin A (). "Enlightenment and Religion in Russian Education in the Reign of Tsar Alexander I".
History of Education mint-body.com: Paul I of Russia. Free Essay: How successful were the reactionary policies of Tsar Alexander III?
Tsar Alexander’s reign () has been known as a period of extreme. Tsar Alexander II ascended as Tsar and Autocrat of all Russia in Surprisingly, as the son of one of Russia’s most reactionary and conservative Tsars, Alexander was tutored by a liberal writer named Vasily Zhukovsky.Download